We at Association CIEES aspire to select research paper, through highest quality peer review. To achieve this, the entire peer review and publication process must be thorough, objective, and fair. Almost every aspect of this process involves important ethical principles and decisions, which are seldom explicitly stated and even less often shared with the readership. Journals’ reputations depend on the trust of readers, authors, researchers, reviewers, editors, research subjects, funding agencies, and administrators of public health policy. This trust is enhanced by describing as explicitly as possible the journal’s policies to ensure the ethical treatment of all participants in the publication process.
The purpose of a policy on ethical principles
A comprehensive policy on publication ethics is summarized in this article, which addresses all the major areas of ethics including publication conference proceeding and International Journals in Engineering and Technology. Our aim is to encourage editors of journals to use these to develop such policies for their journals & proceedings and make them accessible to their constituents by publishing them in print or on the web. The document outlines on what ACIEES consider being the best solutions to address these publication policies and ethical problems, but we expect individual editors to customize the policies to best fit their own situations.
Research Policies and Ethics
Good research should be well justified, well planned, and appropriately designed, so that it can properly address the research question. Statistical issues should be considered early in the system study, to avoid futile studies that produce subject risk. Research should be conducted with high standards of quality and data analysis; output should be specified at the start of the study. Data and records must be retained and produced for review upon request. Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of data constitute scientific misconduct should be strictly avoided.
Documented review and approval from a formally constituted review board would be appreciated.
The recommendations for preferred presentation and analysis of data should be described in the Information for Contributors or Authors. Wherever possible, recommendations should be based on evidence about methods of data presentation that are readable and most likely to be interpreted correctly by readers. Editors should keep themselves informed of this research and adapt their recommendations as it evolves.
Paper should publish based on the copyright that constitutes authorship. While there is no universally agreed definition of authorship. Generally, authorship implies a significant intellectual contribution to the work, some role in writing the manuscript and reviewing the final draft of the manuscript, but authorship roles can vary; and it directly related with copyright. Copyright ensures certain minimum safeguards of the rights of authors over their creations, thereby protecting and rewarding creativity.
For all manuscripts, the corresponding author should be required to provide information on the specific contributions each author has made to the article. All authors are responsible for the quality, accuracy, and ethics of the work, but one author must be identified who will reply if questions arise or more information is needed, and who will take responsibility for the work as a whole. This description of author contributions should be printed with the article. The authors are responsible for creating all components of the manuscript. If writers are provided by the sponsoring or funding institution or corporation to draft or revise the article, the name of the writer and their sponsoring organization must be provided. Their names and contributions will be provided with the acknowledgments. Papers should discourage „honorary“ authorship (when authorship is granted as a favor to someone powerful or prestigious who would not have qualified for it otherwise) and should also try to ensure that all those who qualify as authors are listed.
All authors must take responsibility in writing for the accuracy of the manuscript, and one author must be the guarantor and take responsibility for the work as a whole. A growing trend among publication is to also require that for reports containing original data, at least one author (eg, the principal investigator) should indicate that she or he had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. This helps assure that authors, and not funding sources, have final say over the analysis and reporting of their results.
Peer review is fundamental to the scientific publication process and the dissemination of knowledge and information. Peer reviewers are experts chosen by editors to provide written assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of written research, with the aim of improving the reporting of research and identifying the most appropriate and highest quality material for the publication. Regular reviewers should be required to meet minimum standards (as determined and promulgated) regarding their background in original research, publication of articles, formal training, and previous critical appraisal of manuscripts.
Peer reviewers should be experts in the specific topic addressed in the articles they review, and should be selected for their objectivity and scientific knowledge. Individuals who do not have such expertise should not be reviewers, and there is no role for review of articles by individuals who have a major competing interest in the subject of the article.
All reviewers should be informed of the publication’s expectations and editors should make an effort to educate them and suggest educational materials (such as articles on how to peer review):
The editors should routinely assess all reviews for quality; they may also edit reviews before sending them to authors, or simply not send them if they feel they are not constructive or appropriate. Ratings of review quality and other performance characteristics of reviewers should be periodically assessed to assure optimal performance, and must contribute to decisions on reappointment or ongoing review requests. Individual performance data may be introduced for reviewers and it must be kept confidential.
The submitted manuscript is a privileged communication; reviewers must treat it as confidential. It should not be retained or copied. Also, reviewers must not share the manuscript with any colleagues without the explicit permission of the editor. Reviewers and editors must not make any personal or professional use of the data, arguments, or interpretations (other than those directly involved in its peer review) prior to publication unless they have the authors’ specific permission or are writing an editorial or commentary to accompany the article.
Editors should publish annual/proceedings audits of acceptance rates, publication intervals, percentage of submissions sent out for external peer review, and other performance data.
Decisions about a manuscript should be based only on its importance, originality, clarity, and relevance to the publication scope and content. Studies with negative results despite adequate power, or those challenging previously published work, should receive equal consideration.
There should be an explicit written policy on the procedure that will be followed if an author appeals a decision. If a published paper is subsequently found to have errors or major flaws, the Editor should take responsibility for promptly correcting the written record in the publication. The specific content of the correction may address whether the errors originated with the author or the publication. The correction should be listed in the table of contents to ensure that it is linked to the article to which it pertains in public databases.
Originality, Prior Publication, and Media Relations
Publication should strictly seek original work that has not been previously published or currently not under review at another journal/conference. Web and other electronic publication should be considered the same as print publication for this purpose. Redundant publication occurs when multiple papers, without full cross reference in the text, share the same data, or results. Republication of a paper in another language, or simultaneously in multiple journals with different audiences, may be acceptable, provided that there is full and prominent disclosure of its original source at the time of submission of the manuscript. At the time of submission, authors should disclose details of related papers they have authored, even if in a different language, or similar papers in press, and any closely related papers previously published or currently under review at another journal/conference.
Plagiarism is the use of others’ published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property) without attribution or permission, and presenting them as new and original rather than derived from an existing source. The intent and effect of plagiarism is to mislead the reader as to the contributions of the plagiarizer. This applies whether the ideas or words are taken from abstracts, research grant applications, Institutional Review Board applications, or unpublished or published manuscripts in any publication format (print or electronic).
Plagiarism is scientific misconduct and should be addressed as such. At ACIEES, we strongly discourage and against this ruthless act. If found guilty, to any extent ACIEES will fight for the same.